An animal's breeding value is its genetic merit, half of which will be passed on to its progeny. While we will never know the exact breeding value, for performance traits it is possible to make good estimates. These estimates are called Estimated Breeding Values (EBVs).
In the calculation of EBVs, the performance of individual animals within a contemporary group is directly compared to the average of other animals in that group. A contemporary group consists of animals of the same sex and age class within a herd, run under the same management conditions and treated equally. Indirect comparisons are made between animals reared in different contemporary groups, through the use of pedigree links between the groups.
EBVs are expressed in the units of measurement for each particular trait. They are shown as + ive or - ive differences between an individual animal's genetics difference and the genetic base to which the animal is compared. For example, a bull with an EBV of +50 kg for 600-Day Weight is estimated to have genetic merit 50 kg above the breed base of 0 kg. Since the breed base is set to an historical benchmark, the average EBVs of animals in each year drop has changed over time as a result of genetic progress within the breed.
The absolute value of any EBV is not critical, but rather the differences in EBVs between animals. Particular animals should be viewed as being "above or below breed average" for a particular trait.
Whilst EBVs provide the best basis for the comparison of the genetic merit of animals reared in different environments and management conditions, they can only be used to compare animals analysed within the same analysis. Consequently, Hereford BREEDPLAN EBVs cannot be validly compared with EBVs for any other breed.
Although EBVs provide an estimate of an animal’s genetic merit for a range of production traits, they do not provide information for all of the traits that must be considered during selection of functional animals. In all situations, EBVs should be used in conjunction with visual assessment for other traits of importance (such as structural soundness, temperament, fertility etc). A recommended practice is to firstly select breeding stock based on EBVs and to then select from this group to ensure that the final selections are otherwise acceptable.
EBVs are published for a range of traits covering fertility, calving ease, milking ability, growth, carcase merit and feed efficiency. When using EBVs to assist in selection decisions it is important to achieve a balance between the different groups of traits and to place emphasis on those traits that are important to the particular herd, markets and environment. One of the advantages of having a comprehensive range of EBVs is that it is possible to avoid extremes in particular traits and select for animals with balanced overall performance.
Calving Ease EBVs (%) are based on calving difficulty scores, birth weights and gestation length information. More positive EBVs are favourable and indicate easier calving.
CE % Direct = Direct Calving Ease - The EBV for direct calving ease indicates the influence of the sire on calving ease in purebred females calving at two years of age.
CE % Daughters = Daughters' Calving Ease - The EBV for daughters' calving ease indicates how easily that sire's daughters will calve at two years of age. It consists of the maternal component and half the direct component (ie CE maternal + ½ CE direct).
Gestation Length EBV (days) is an estimate of the time from conception to the birth of the calf and is based on AI and hand mating records. Lower (negative) GL EBVs indicate shorter gestation length and therefore easier calving and increased growth after birth.
Birth Weight EBV (kg) is based on the measured birth weight of progeny, adjusted for dam age. The lower the value the lighter the calf at birth and the lower the likelihood of a difficult birth. This is particularly important when selecting sires for use over heifers.
200-Day Growth EBV (kg) is calculated from the weight of progeny taken between 80 and 300 days of age. Values are adjusted to 200 days and for age of dam. This EBV is the best single estimate of an animal's genetic merit for growth to early ages.
400-Day Weight EBV (kg) is calculated from the weight of progeny taken between 301 and 500 days of age, adjusted to 400 days and for age of dam. This EBV is the best single estimate of an animal's genetic merit for yearling weight.
600-Day Weight EBV (kg) is calculated from the weight of progeny taken between 501 and 900 days of age, adjusted to 600 days and for age of dam. This EBV is the best single estimate of an animal's genetic merit for growth beyond yearling age.
Mature Cow Weight EBV (kg) is based on the cow weight when the calf is weighed for weaning, adjusted to 5 years of age. This EBV is an estimate of the genetic difference in cow weight at 5 years of age and is an indicator of growth at later ages and potential feed maintenance requirements of the females in the breeding herd. Steer breeders wishing to grow animals out to a larger weight may also use the Mature Cow Weight EBV.
Milk EBV (kg) is an estimate of an animal's milking ability. For sires, this EBV indicates the effect of the daughter's milking ability, inherited from the sire, on the 200-day weights of her calves. For dams, it indicates her milking ability.
Scrotal Size EBV (cm) is calculated from the circumference of the scrotum taken between 300 and 700 days of age and adjusted to 400 days of age. This EBV is an estimate of an animal's genetic merit for scrotal size. There is also a small negative correlation with age of puberty in female progeny and therefore selection for increased scrotal size will result in reduced age at calving of female progeny.
Days to Calving EBV (days) indicates the fertility of the daughters of the sire. It is the time interval between when the female is first exposed to a bull in a paddock mating to the day when she subsequently calves. A negative EBV for days to calving indicates a shorter interval from bull-in date to calving and therefore higher fertility.
Carcase Weight EBV (kg) is based on abattoir carcase records and is an indicator of the genetic differences in carcase weight at the standard age of 650 days.
Eye Muscle Area EBV (sq cm) is calculated from measurements from live animal ultrasound scans and from abattoir carcase data, adjusted to a standard 300 kg carcase. This EBV estimates genetic differences in eye muscle area at the 12/13th rib site of a 300 kg dressed carcase. More positive EBVs indicate better muscling on animals. Sires with relatively higher EMA EBVs are expected to produce better-muscled and higher percentage yielding progeny at the same carcase weight than will sires with lower EMA EBVs.
Rib Fat and Rump Fat EBVs (mm) are calculated from measurements of subcutaneous fat depth at the 12/13-rib site and the P8 rump site (from live animal ultrasound scans and from abattoir carcases) and are adjusted to a standard 300 kg carcase. These EBVs are indicators of the genetic differences in fat distribution on a standard 300 kg carcase. Sires with low, or negative, fat EBVs are expected to produce leaner progeny at any particular carcase weight than will sires with higher EBVs.
Retail Beef Yield EBV (%) indicates genetic differences between animals for retail yield percentage in a standard 300 kg carcase. Sires with larger EBVs are expected to produce progeny with higher yielding carcases.
Intramuscular Fat EBV (%) is an estimate of the genetic difference in the percentage of intramuscular fat at the 12/13th rib site in a 300 kg carcase. Depending on market targets, larger more positive values are generally more favourable.
Docility EBV (%) is calculated from docility scores taken at weaning or shortly afterwards. This EBV is an estimate of the genetic difference in the percentage of progeny that will be scored as docile or restless (scores 1 or 2).
Net Feed Intake (Feedlot Finishing) EBV (kg) is an estimate of genetic differences between animals in feed intake at a standard weight and rate of weight gain when animals are in a feedlot finishing phase. NFI-F EBVs as expressed as kilograms (kg) of feed intake per day. Lower, or more negative, NFI-F EBVs are more favourable. For example, a bull with an NFI-F EBV of –0.6 kg/day would be expected to produce progeny that eat less feed per day than the progeny from a bull that has an NFI-F EBV of +0.8 kg/day (when the progeny are of similar weight, are growing at a similar rate, and are in a feedlot finishing phase).
Hereford selection indices are calculated for four production/market specifications, namely, Southern Self Replacing, Northern Self Replacing, Southern Baldy Maternal and Northern Baldy Terminal.
Each selection index describes a different production/market scenario and relates to a typical commercial herd using Hereford bulls. Producers are advised to use the selection index that most closely aligns to their production system. All four selection indexes are focussed on maintaining and improving eating quality. Significant premiums are applied for increasing marble score up to a marble score of 3. Pressure is also applied to early life growth to maintain low ossification scores and good MSA compliance. In addition, each selection index targets the following specifications.
Index values are reported as EBVs, in units of relative earning capacity ($’s) for a given market. They reflect both the short-term profit generated by a sire through the sale of his progeny, and the longer-term profit generated by his daughters in a self-replacing cow herd. Note that different types of animals can give similar profit values, so consideration should be given to both the index and the component EBVs when selecting animals for a particular production system. More information is available on selecting animals using a selection index.
The Index values are derived using BreedObject technology. More information is available from the BreedObject web site.
Southern Self-Replacing Index - Estimates the genetic differences between animals in net profitability per cow joined in a commercial self-replacing straight bred Hereford herd targeting the domestic market. Daughters are retained for breeding and so maternal traits are of importance. Steers are slaughtered at 20 to 22 months of age to produce 300 kg carcases with 10 mm P8 fat depth. A moderate cost is applied for cow feed costs during the annual feed shortage period.
Northern Self-Replacing Index - Estimates the genetic differences between animals in net profitability per cow joined in a commercial self-replacing herd targeting the domestic market. This index is suitable for use by both straight bred Hereford herds and in crossbreeding programs where Hereford bulls are being used over a Bos indicus based cow herd (e.g. flatback). Daughters are retained for breeding and so maternal traits are of importance. Steers are slaughtered at 20 to 22 months of age to produce 340 kg carcases with 12 mm P8 fat depth. A high cost is applied for cow feed costs during the annual feed shortage period.
Southern Baldy Maternal Index - Estimates the genetic differences between animals in net profitability per cow joined in a commercial crossbred herd using Hereford bulls over Bos taurus females (e.g. Angus). A portion of the heifers are retained for breeding and so maternal traits are of importance. The steers and surplus heifers are destined for slaughter at 20 to 22 months of age. Steers produce 300 kg carcases with 10 mm of P8 fat depth, while heifers produce 270 kg carcases with 12 mm of P8 fat depth. A moderate cost is applied for cow feed costs during the annual feed shortage period.
Northern Baldy Terminal Index - Estimates the genetic differences between animals in net profitability per cow joined in a commercial crossbred herd (e.g. flatback) using Hereford bulls over Bos indicus/Tropical females (e.g. Santa Gertrudis) where all progeny (male and female) are destined for slaughter. Steers and heifers are slaughtered at 20 to 22 months of age. Steers produce 340 kg carcases with 14 mm of P8 fat depth while heifers produce 300 kg carcases with 17 mm of P8 fat depth.
Note that $Index values for individual animals are sensitive to the assumptions used in the BreedObject analysis to calculate the selection index. More information is available on the weightings used in the
Accuracy (%) is based on the amount of performance information available on the animal and its close relatives - particularly the number of progeny analysed. Accuracy is also based on the heritability of the trait and the genetic correlations with other recorded traits. Hence accuracy indicates the "confidence level" of the EBV. The higher the accuracy value the lower the likelihood of change in the animal's EBV as more information is analysed for that animal or its relatives. Even though an EBV with a low accuracy may change in the future, it is still the best estimate of an animal's genetic merit for that trait. As more information becomes available, an EBV is just as likely to increase in value, as it is to decrease.
Accuracy values range from 0-99%. The following guide is given for interpreting accuracy:
less than 50%
EBV should be considered as a preliminary estimate. It could change substantially as more performance information becomes available.
Medium accuracy, usually based on the animal's own records and pedigree. Still subject to substantial changes with more information, particularly when the performance of progeny are analysed.
Medium - high accuracy and includes some progeny information. Becoming a more reliable indicator of the animal's value as a parent.
more than 90%
High accuracy estimate of the animal's true breeding value. It is unlikely that the EBV will change much with the addition of more progeny data.
As a rule, animals should be compared on EBVs regardless of accuracy. However, where two animals have similar EBVs the one with higher accuracy could be the safer choice, assuming other factors are equal. More information on accuracy is available from the BREEDPLAN Help Centre.
Acknowledgments and Disclaimer
Information analysed in BREEDPLAN evaluations, including but not limited to pedigree, performance and DNA information, is based on data supplied by clients and/or third parties. The Agricultural Business Research Institute (ABRI) does not oversee or audit the collection of the data. Whilst every effort is made to ensure the accuracy of the information, the ABRI, their officers and employees assume no responsibility for its content, use or interpretation.
Estimated Breeding Values can only be directly compared to other EBVs calculated in the same analysis.